Czech pork-snitzel with wild mushrooms


Note: This is “authentic Czech household food” from a lady who moved to Iceland from there some years ago. They would always use pork for it.

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Pork-snitzel with wild mushrooms
(serves four – the meal is decorated with parsley)
1 bag dried mushrooms (you can also use fresh mushrooms, and use whichever kind of mushrooms you like)
4 pieces pork-snitzel (or thinly-cut meat intended for snitzel)
flour for breading
6 slices of bacon (cut into pieces)
1 onion (finely chopped)
1 T tomato purée

Method: (Go here to see the video, don’t worry, most of the talking is unrelated to the instructions)

Soak the dried mushrooms in water for about ten minutes (skip this step if using fresh mushrooms). [0:38]
Lightly roll (cover) the meat in flour, don’t use too much flour, and use flour instead of breadcrumbs or the Icelandic type of breading.[1:14]
Fry the bacon on a pan. [2:19]
Mix the onion pieces in and fry them until the onion becomes transparent.[2:33]
Add the tomato purée in and fry it for a little while.[3:10]
Pour a little water into the pan and let the tomato purée dissolve into it.[3:12]
Add in the mushrooms and some red wine.[3:20]
Boil it on low heat for 5 min.[3:40]
Fry the meat on a pan in oil.[3:50]
Put the lemon juice into the mushroom pan.[4:20] (note: I don’t know if shes using a ton of straight lemon juice, or lemon juice and water, or something more like flat lemon soda, but straight lemon juice is really cheap in Iceland so it’s possible)
(you can put a little salt in it at this point)
Add in a little water and the meat and let it simmer for 35-40 min.[4:27]

Old Norse & Modern Nordic Languages

Note: This is not a direct “translation”, in fact this is a translated summary of about the first 75 pages of this paper. If you want to read more, see Wikipedia (which is more detailed/may be more correct than this paper), or the actual paper. From “Norðurlandamálin með rótum og fótum” which you can download for free here in Scandinavian, Faroese, and Icelandic.

These notes are for Old Norse, and the modern differences between the Germanic-Nordic languages, including some historical notes on changes. PLEASE NOTE that in the previously-translated sections, the paper itself got facts wrong (such as dialect breakdowns for Sami and grammatical breakdowns for Greenlandic) so most likely this one also has factual mistakes. If you can fix them, please do, and I’ll update this with them when I see them.

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Politically the Nordic countries are all one area, but linguistically they are split into drastically different parts. That is to say, they aren’t from the same language family – the languages do not all have the same roots. Here are the first five cardinal numbers from the Indo-European family, English, Norwegian, German, and French, and after that are the same words in Sami, Finnish, and Hungarian which are from the Uralic language family:

(Indo-European) English, Norwegian, German, French
One, en/ein, eins, un,
Two, to, zwei, deux,
Three, tre, drei, trois,
Four, fire, vier, quatre,
Five, fem, fünf, cinq

(Uralic) Sami, Finnish, Hungarian
Okta, yksi, egy
Guokte, kaksi, kettö
Golbma, kolme, három
Njeallje, neljä, négy
Vihtta, viisi, öt

(Greenlandic is in yet another completely-unrelated language family, but the modern counting system is simply Danish numbers so that’s probably why it’s not listed here.)

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Icelandic Writing Rules 1929


The following are multiple texts translated out of order from “Ritreglur / Writing Rules” by Freystein Gunnarsson, from 1929. This is from before the spelling reform that turned z’s into s’s in Icelandic, although they still write gjörmynd instead of germynd.

The Icelandic text was written using old rules for comma usage as well as some old vocabulary and phrasing. As such it was more difficult for me to translate as usually I translate modern text. In the most difficult parts, due to things like conflicting meanings being found when I looked up words (ex. usage in the text/old meaning versus modern meaning) or confusion on my part, and also in some parts due to the reader likely being more familiar with the Icelandic terms than the English, I have left the original Icelandic in. I have also taken various measures to make it easier to read, as the original was basically walls of text.

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Part 37: When to spell with z vs s

45: when to hyphenate, 46: when to capitalize, 47: abbreviations, 48: figures vs. spelling out numbers

5: é, 41: spelling variants and old forms of spelling

Icelandic Bun Day Buns


Note: This makes about 40 buns. SCALE BACK THE RECIPE accordingly.
Original recipe is here.

If you need photo instructions, Danish ones are here.

(yeastless version of) Bun Day Buns (“Choux pastry” buns)
Raw Materials (“Ingredients”):
225g margarine
225g flour
6 eggs
4.5dl water
3t sugar

Method:
Boil the water, margarine, and sugar together in a pot. Stir in the flour, let the water boil until it doesn’t stick to the pot or (wooden?) mixing spoon.

One-by-one add the eggs in with the dough after it’s cooled a little.

It’s good to use a mixer/electric mixer/mixing machine to mix the eggs in with the dough and knead it. (Now form them into balls and put them on your greased cookie sheet or baking paper.)

Next bake them in the oven on the upper shelf at 225°C for 15min and then at 175°C for ten minutes. You may not open the oven meanwhile.

(Note: Then cut the buns in half and fill with whipped cream, maybe fruit pieces and other such things too, and top with melted chocolate and possibly powdered sugar. Google “Bolludagur – Bun Day” or “Bolludagsbolla – Bun Day Bun” or “Vatnsdeigsbollur – lit. “water-dough-buns” but means “choux pastry bun” to see some photos of Icelandic-style buns that you can copy.)

New Year’s confectionary

New Year’s confectionary – simple and delicious

400g Odense premade ‪kransekake‬ (“wreath cake”) dough (“Odense Færdig Kransekagemasse”)
200g Odense dessert-mass with pistachio (“Odense Dessertmasse med pistaciesmag” – a pre-prepared mix of things intended for edible dessert decorations)
Odense white and dark chocolate chips for decorational lines (“Odense overtræk”)
Minced nuts

Spread the kransekake dough onto baking paper and do so in varying shapes,  ex. hearts, wreathes, or whatever suits your fancy. Sprinkle with minced nuts and the dessert-mass. Bake the confectionary on two baking sheets at 220°C until they’re golden (about 6-7 min). Let cool and decorate with lines of dark and white chocolate.

Pavlova with chocolate-butter


200g plain Odense marzipan (“Odense Ren Rå Marcipan”)
100g egg whites (in many places you can buy these in jugs/bottles, pre-separated)
50g sugar

Chocolate cream:
200g dark Odense chocolate (“Odense Mørk Chokolade”)
100g butter

Decorations:
Odense dessert-mass with pistachio (“Odense Dessertmasse med pistaciesmag” – a pre-prepared mix of things intended for edible dessert decorations)
White Odense chocolate (“Odense Hvid Chokolade”)

Whip the egg whites and sugar until stiff. Grate the marzipan and mix it in. Grease the dough on baking paper and roll it out so it’s 24cm in diameter. Bake it at 175°C for approx. 25 min. Let cool and prepare the chocolate-cream.

Chop up the chocolate and melt it over a water bath. (I chop chocolate up, put it in a glass cup, then put the cup in a frying pan that has some water in it and heat up the pan. I’ve never had any problems doing it this way.) Add in the butter and put the mix in a bowl. Let cool and then when it’s suitably stiff, spread it over the pavlova base. Decorate the edge of the cake with the pistachio-flavoured dessert mass and grate white chocolate over the cake.

White Christmas-roll (Swiss roll)

Dough (“crust”)
100g plain Odense marzipan (“Odense Ren Rå Marcipan”)
1dl milk
3 egg whites
100g sugar

White chocolate cream (filling)
200g white Odense chocolate (“Odense Hvid Chokolade”)
2.5dl cooking cream (something like coffee cream – not whipping cream)

Grate the marzipan and add in the milk. Whip the egg whites and sugar together until stiff, and mix in with the soft marzipan dough. Spread the dough onto a 20x30cm sheet of baking paper and bake at 160°C for approx. 30 min. Let cool and place in the freezer.

Heat the cream and add in the white chocolate. Pour the cream into a bowl and store it in the freezer until the next day. Take the cooked dough out of the freezer.

Flip the baking paper and cooked dough over, and carefully remove the dough from the baking paper. Lay the dough on a new sheet of baking paper and turn the backside up again. Stir the chocolate-cream and spread it (thickly, judging by the photo) over the dough, as the dough is rolled up (into a log). Freeze the roll again.

Take the roll out of the freezer 30 min. before it is to be served. Sprinkle powdered sugar over it and serve.

Popcorn Cake

Mi provis traduki recepton… ;_; La recepto venas el Islando.

Krevmaizkuko

300g da glazursukero
110 gramoj da butero
kuirita krevmaizo (sen la grajnoj estus plej bona)
2 tekuleroj/kafkuleroj da vanilfluaĵo/vanilekstrakto (la gusto de vanilfluaĵo estas pli forta ol vanilsukero)
ĉokoladopasteloj
20 rompiĝaj brecoj
blanka ĉokolado
blua manĝaĵokoloro (food-colouring)

Popcorn Cake

pre-popped popcorn (best without kernels)
110g butter
300g Haribo powdered sugar
2t vanilla extract
M&Ms (or Smarties)
20 pretzel sticks (broken)
1/4 bag white Nóa Síríus chocolate drops (these are unique to Iceland as far as I know, just use small-chopped chocolate pieces instead – a bit smaller than half the size of chocolate chips)
Blue chocolate food-colouring (in Iceland this comes in little bottles pre-mixed, but you can just add regular food colouring to the melted white chocolate instead)

Instrukcioj:
Fandu boteron en kuirpoto. Miksu la glazursukeron kune kun la boteron, je meza varmo, ĝis la glazursukero estas fanda. Miksu vanilofluaĵon en la kuirpoto. Miksu la ĉokoladopastelojn, krevmaizon kaj brecojn kune. Elverŝu la miksaĵon de la kuirpoto sur la krevmaizomikasaĵo. Muldu la novan mikasaĵon je kukomuldilo. Malvarmetiĝu la kukon dum ĉirkaŭ 30 minutoj.

La ĉokolado sur la kuko:
Metu la ĉokoladon blankan en glaso. Metu la glason en kuirpoto (aŭ fritilo) kun akvo. Fandu la ĉokoladon. Miksu la bluan manĝaĵokoloron kune kun la ĉokoladojn.

Method: Melt butter in a pot, mix the powdered sugar in and melt on medium heat. Put the vanilla extract in. Mix the M&Ms and pretzel sticks together with the popcorn and pour the powdered sugar blend over top. Mould it into a popcorn ring with a ring mould (also called a Jello or bundt cake-mould). Let the cake cool off for 30 minutes.

The chocolate on top: Melt the white Nóa Síríus chocolate drops and mix the blue chocolate food colouring in. Pour over the cake.

Overview of the North Sami Language

Translated from “Norðurlandamálin með rótum og fótum” which you can download for free here in Scandinavian, Faroese, and Icelandic. Neetainari gave a lot of corrections on typos/where the paper got it wrong.

*Translation Note: “Flatlands” was suggested as a better alternative by Neetainari as the actual translation “plains/prairies” is totally wrong and they don’t even have those things (too big – so the flatlands are just small areas too). “boplatserna/búsvæðin” was translated into “camp sites” because of a discussion I found on the word, debating “camp site” versus “settlement”, where it was pointed out that Sami people didn’t really have “settlements”.

The Icelandic chapter was translated from the Swedish version. The Icelandic version was missing some things and unclear on some things (namely the Sami names for Nordic places and some vocabulary) so I compared the Swedish to the Icelandic in those cases to get the translation.

Again this is intended for Sami-language learners, so I didn’t translate many of the cultural/historical notes, just the language notes. In the Greenlandic chapter there were mistakes in what it was teaching, and now it’s been shown to have mistakes in the Sami chapter too, so if you see any more mistakes just tell me so I can fix them.

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The Sami languages are usually broken down into three distinct languages with dialects within: Eastern Sami, Middle Sami, and Southern Sami. These Sami languages are not mutually intelligible.

(Note: Neetainari says the dialect break-down is wrong. They also got the Greenlandic dialects wrong, so maybe they just don’t do good research.)

Eastern Sami languages include:
Inari Sami which is spoken around Finland and the lake Inari
Skolt Sami which is spoken in Finland and Russia
Kildin, Akka, and Ter Sami which are spoken in the Kola Peninsula.

Middle sami includes:
Northern Sami, spoken on the beach of Norway
Finnmark Sami, spoken in Finnmark in Norway (Kautokeino and Karasjokk) and spoken in some nearby areas of Finland (Utsjoki)
Torne Sami, Spoken in the north of Gällivare in Sweden, and nearby areas in Finland and Norway.  (Note: this seems to be very outdated/wrong, “Torne Sami” might be something from the 1700’s if anything, but it doesn’t seem to exist as a modern language and there seem to be only two sources {in Swedish] that used the term on the internet. It might be a miscategorization of one of the dialects.)
Lule Sami, spoken in Jokkmokk in Sweden and near Tysfjord in Norway
Pite Sami, spoken in the area of Arjeplog

Southern Sami includes:
Ume Sami, spoken in Västerbotten
Southern Sami, spoken in Southern-Västerbotten and in Jämtland.

Places with Sami people often have Sami names, for example:
Giron (Kiruna – Sweden)
Guovdageaidnu (Finnmark Sami, Kautokeino – Norway)
Kárášjohka (Finnmark Sami, Karasujok – Norway)
Ohcejohka (Finnmark Sami, Utsjoki – Finland)
Jiellevárri (Torne Sami, Gallivare – Sweden)
Jåhkåmåhkke (Lule Sami, Jokkmokk – Sweden)
Divtasvuodna (Lule Sami, Tysfjord – Norway)
Guoládat (Northern Sami, Ко́льский полуо́стров / Kola Peninsula – Russia)

In Sami are words that can be traced back to more than 6.000 years ago, for example the words njuolla (scar), juoksa (arc, curve, bow, now an archaic word), suotna (sinew, tendon), guolli (fish), njoammil (hare).  These examples are from North Sami. There are words from the Uralic and West-Siberian languages too.
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Overview of the Greenlandic Language

Translated from “Norðurlandamálin með rótum og fótum” which you can download for free here in Scandinavian, Faroese, and Icelandic.

There are no italics or bolding because the site I originally translated this for doesn’t allow them. Some things were “fixed” by others not because I translated them wrong, but because the original article was wrong (just a few minor things, like them writing “third person” when it should have been first person). In the same vein, some minor things were added in (place names and their Danish translations). Also, I didn’t translate the whole chapter because I was intending this for people who are studying Greenlandic, so there are some things like historical notes that I didn’t translate.

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Intro:
The main language of Greenland is called kalaallit oqaasii or kalaallisut. There’s three dialects of Greenlandic: avanersuaq (Greenland’s most northern area), tunu (East Greenlandic), and kitaa (West Greenlandic). In this we will be talking about West Greenlandic. From Uppernavik in the North to Hvars (Kap Farvel) in the south is where the main body of West Greenlandic is spoken.

(Note: These are actually fairly different and might not be mutual dialects, as told to me by commentors)

Place names sometimes have both Danish and Greenlandic names:
Avanersuaq – (Nordic name, Thule) (English name, Qaanaaq)
Illoqqortoormiut – Scoresbysund (town closest to Akureyri in Iceland)
Tasiilaq (Eastern Greenlandic), Tasiusaq (Western) – Ammassalik (Danish)
Kangerlussuaq – Søndre Strømfjord
Nuuk – Godthåb
Paamiut – Frederikshab

Inuit (inuitattackatigiit’s note: “Inuit” is plural, “Inuk” is singular) is the name of the Greenlanders that they use for themselves. The word Inuk means “human being”. Eskimo is the name of the Canadian languages around Quebec spoken by the Indian people there. This word was first used by missionaries in the start of the seventeenth century. It was taken from a word that meant “those who eat raw meat”.

Kalaaleq (plural, kalaallit) – it’s unknown where this word comes from, but it’s used to mean the “inhabitants of Greenland”. One idea is that it came from to Greenland from the whalers who were travelling between Greenland and the Finnish area Karelia. Poul Edge, the son of Hans Edge, a Norse priest who was a missionary to Greenland, wrote in his dictionary saying that Greenlanders called themselves Inuit but around outsiders they called themselves Karelers.
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1930’s American word usage and slang dictionary (continuously updated)

Last update: 18th March 2015.

Work in progress. Only from sources published from 1930-1939. Currently my sources are just Hollywood movies because I haven’t found any interesting novels that you can download for free yet…

I started doing this because if you search online, often you find results that are incorrect, misleading, or simply “not enough”. People also seemed to be using the words they found from such sites entirely wrongly, so I decided to include examples.

If there are no quotes it means I haven’t found a good one yet. There are also a lot of terms that any native American-speaking person knows correctly already, but because this list is also intended to help foreigners and for writers to be more sure that the phrase they thought of is period-accurate, they are included.

They were much more fond of imagery slang compared to today, ex “lamp” for eye or lightbulb, “flying rings” for trapeze, “bird” for singer, and in general something what gives you a mental image of a physical object/event. Secondary to that, they were fond of calling things in general by a major brand name or their brand name (such as coats or guns), much as American still do today (such as Band-Aid, Jello and Styrofoam, the term for this is “generic trademarking”). Likewise, instead of set insults, usually context-based insults were made up. If you are inspired to make up your own slang or insults, keep it along those lines.

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Hlaup

Note: Choppy translations as always.

Vísir, 28th February 1936:
Dear Mrs.*
Now when it’s so well into the season that one may find inexpensive oranges, you should use the opportunity and treat your family to them. The following is a good recipe for congealant (hlaup) out of this type of fruit.

Orange-congealant.
3 oranges.
3 eggs.
4 T sugar.
3 sheets gelatin.

The egg yolks are mixed in well with the sugar. Next is to squeeze the juice out of the oranges and mix it into the egg yolk and sugar mixture. The egg whites are whipped until stiff and set aside to rest, along with the gelatin, which has been dissolved into one tablespoon of water. — Keep it in a glass bowl and let it stiffen up.

This is a sufficient dessert for three.

The dish is delicious and it will go over well with your* household. It is also practical and appetising for the ill.

* I was previously unaware that Mrs. is short for “Mistress”, but in light of the modern meaning of “mistress”, I think it’s best to use Mrs. instead.
* your – yðar, “honorific form of your”.

———————– More to come.

Icelandic Fruit Soup recipes

WIP: not finished gathering recipes, plan to add older/newer ones too.
All recipes so far from Helga’s book, will add info later, recipes first printed in 1947 by someone in their forty/fifties.

Note: Any time you add in the potato flour you MUST first dissolve it into a little bit of cold water, then mix it into the soup. Even if the recipe doesn’t say or is unclear. Otherwise you get sticky, transparent lumps of potato flour in the soup and it doesn’t actually dissolve. Potato flour just thickens up the soup a bit.

Krækiberja (crowberry) soup
1/2 – 1kg. crowberries
1.5 l. water
100g sugar
50g potato flour
1 dl cold water
Whole cinnamon (stick of cinnamon)

Crowberries are best in soup or juice, when they are well-matured (ripe). The berries are cleaned and boiled in water with the cinnamon stick for 20-30 minutes, then filtered from the soup-stock (that you just made). The potato flour is mixed into cold water, mixed into the soup when it boils, and then you let it boil again. The sugar is added afterwards to taste. Eaten with rusk (twice-baked bread) or brown (rye) bread.

Bilberry soup
100g dried bilberries (Icelandic blueberries) or 1 l. fresh bilberries
1.5 l. water
125g sugar
50g potato flour
1 dl. water

The dried blueberries are washed and left to soak overnight. Boil them in the water that you have been soaking them in, for one hour. Filter and heat up the liquid portion again, add sugar to taste. The thickening agent is of potato flour, which has been mixed into cold water. Eat with rusk (twice-baked bread) or brown (rye) bread. It’s correct to twice-boil the bilberries, if they are dried. You get more taste out of them.

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Bastardized Icelandic food

Work In Progress: Translation needs to be polished.

From Morgunblaðið (a newspaper), 20th May 1936:

Smoked skyr and the Icelandic vínarterta.

In the 3rd edition of the Danish weekly paper “Hjemmet”, which came out in January last month, the food column of the paper showed some recipes for “Icelandic food”. There were presented, among other things, recipes for smoked skyr, “Icelandic vínarterta (Vienna cake)”, which you know to be a type of cake peculiar to Iceland, and lastly fish soup, which is every Icelander’s favourite food. These recipes were in general so queer, and so far off from the truth, in that if they were Icelandic it is a unique event and should be regarded by the good Icelander as such(??). An enterprising Icelandic woman, Miss Þuríður Sigurðardóttir took it upon herself to question “Hjemmet” about from where the paper had obtained these “great” recipes for Icelandic food. She said she was especially curious to know more about the “smoked skyr”, which no Icelander, to her knowledge, recognizes. At the same time she sent the paper a recipe for good Icelandic skyr from a dairy here.

Now Miss Þuríður has received an answer to her letter, and she has cordially allowed Morgunblaðið to see it.

THE RECIPES WERE FROM A “BIG, AMERICAN NEWSPAPER”.
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WIP Haraldur Árnason’s Shops

This is a work in progress, many things still need to be properly translated, I’m missing some dates, and I need to research more, etc.

The first mentions of Haraldur are in 1904 and over the next few years (until he officially opened his own shop, when he became a lot more popular) his publicity started to increase, but at that point he apparently was a travelling merchant. Trips to the Faroes, Denmark, and England are mentioned early on, later New York is mentioned. On the 27th of May, 1909 he helped to start a clothing shop in Garðarshólmi by Hverfisgata, called Dagsbrún. For three and a half years before this he studied shopkeeping in England, although it seems from the articles that he might have also been some kind of small-time merchant even before studying.

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