This is mainly intended for people who want to write fantasy stories or make videogames (many of them use Nordic, or butchered Nordic, names). The words below are good for place-names, but both plant and animal names are used in even modern-day person names as well, so you can be named “Eagle Birch’s-Leaf” for example.
This is language from the 1860’s and a bit earlier, from Värend and Småland (south of Sweden), so it’s spelled a bit differently from modern Swedish and gives it that old-timey feel. Source is here. I wrote this post ages ago (back when my Swedish was a lot worse) and don’t intend to fix it up for some time, but it’s still usable.
(Unfortunately I don’t have translations for all the examples)
Hult, Hylta (“a forest with broad-leaf trees”, usually meaning oak or beech – Värend dialect): Often in the end of place-names. Examples: Lönshult, Lindehult, Elmhult.
Eke (oak) – Examples: Eke, Ekemoen, Ekewarfven (the oak warf), Fagereke (beautiful oak), Fröseke, Welleke.
Ask (ash) – Eskås, Lönsås, Lindås, Almås, Elmisås.
Hässle (hazel, as in hazelnut) – Hässle, Hasslebäck (hazel brook), Hässlemoen, Rotehässle.
Björke (birch) – Björke, Saxabjörke, Lindbjörke.
Skog (forest) – Ulfvaskog (wolf forest), Mörkaskog (dark/murky forest), Ledaskog, Högaskog (tall forest), Bondeskog (farmer’s forest), Holstenskog.
Other geographical features:
Bö (a low-laying cliff that doesn’t quite reach the water’s edge) – Bökemoen, Bökebacken, Böket, Wrångeböke.
Holm: 1. A boardered-off piece of land (which is why it means “islet” in English, because the land is boardered off by water). 2. “A hill-island”, meaning ground which is higher than, or otherwise distinguished from, the surrounding ground (ex. a forest with lumpy ground).
Examples: Stockholm, hjortholmen (deer’s holm).
Sjö (sea, ocean, lake).
Bjur (beaver – Värend dialect): bjursjön (the beaver-lake), bjurkärr (beaver-marsh/swamp), bjursängsmaden (beaver-bed’s-marshy meadow).
An old spelling of the standard word for beaver is “Bäfver“.
Elgen (Unknown but probably means “elk”): Elghult, Elgabeck, Elganäs.
Hjorten (the deer): Hjortsberga (deer’s mountain), Hjortåsen, Hjortelid, hjortholmen (deer’s holm).
Rået (the row-deer) is also called “råbocken, rågeten, rådjuret, djuret”.
Examples: Djurhult, Gårdarne Råsmåla, Råatorp, djuramåla, djuratorp.
Björnen (the bear): Björnhult, Björnamo, Björneke, Björnelycke.
Ulfven (the wolf): Ulf, ulfvaskog, ulfvahult, ulfvamo (a forest), ulfvagrafven, ulfön, ulfvasjö.
Räfven (the fox) is used both in family names as ”Räf” and in farm/courtyard names (Räfveberg, Räfvakulla).
Basse, vildbasse (wild swine/boar): Family name Basse.
Gräflingen (the badger) both as a family name and in farms/courtyards: Gräflingeberg, Gräflingaryd, Gräflingatånga.
Foglar (Birds/fowls) were often used for lakes/seas: Foglasjö (fowl-sea), Transjö (crane sea).
Odensvalan (the Oden’s swan) – Odensvalehult
Hägern ”the tern” is a family name as well. Hägerhyltan, Hägersjöhylte, hägeryd, hägerhult.
Hjerpen () both family name and farm/courtyard name: Hjerpanäs.
Ramnen (the raven): the farm/courtyard Ramneberg
Örnen (the eagle): Örnaberg (name of a mountain/hill), Örnhult, Örnhyltan (names of farms/courtyards)
General animal names:
First is the word in English, then in modern, standard Swedish, and in parenthesis is the old or dialectal term. M = masculine gender, n = neuter gender, f = feminine gender.
Elfvaoxen (”elf oxen”), elfvekor (elf-cow), jättakorna (giant grain), hafoxar (sea-oxen), hafkor (sea-cow)
hedgehog – igelkott (ifverkutte, ilekutte)
squirrel – ekorre (ikane n, ickonn m, granoxe “fur/pine ox” f)
weasle – vessla (lakatt “?-cat” – actually meaning “hermine”? f)
bat – flädermus/fladdermus “flutter-mouse” (läderlapp “leather-scrap” f)
mole – mullvad (mullskute m)
shrew – näbbmus “beak mouse” (angelmus, ängermus f)
grouse – tjäder/tjäderfogel (fjärhane (used for females), fjärtopp (for males), fjärhöna (for females), fjärhöns (for females) f)
grey/heath-hen – orrhöna (rya f)
partridge – rapphöna/rapphöns (åherköna, åkerhöns f)
? – sädesknarr m (äringsfogel f)
duckling – andunge “duck young” (elling f)
jay – nötskrika “nut-shrieker” (akaneskrika f)
jackdaw – kaja (alika f)
? – strandgyckla “beach ?” (bäckastränta “brook-?” f)
wagtail – sädesärla “seed-wagtail” (gatuvippa “street-swag”, tätteltink, plogärla “plow-wagtail” f)
Accipitridae family hawks – glada (glänta)
sparrow – sparf (spink f)
house sparrow – gråsparf “grey sparrow” (gråspink f)
yellowhammer – gulsparf “yellow sparrow” (gulspink f)
snow bunting – snösparf “snow sparrow” (snöspink f)
woodpecker – hackspett “hack-skewer?” (hackspjutt “hack-spear”, vedaknaff “?-thrust”, parrfogel, f)
A type of woodpecker – (gölinge f)
Snipe – snäppa (obsolete)/beckasin (horsagök f)
Song thrush/throstle – talltrast “pine/fur thrush” (klera f)
blackbird – koltrast “coal-thrush” (solsvärta “sun-black” f)
golden plover – ljungspole(obsolete, “lung-pole”)/ljungpipare “lung-cheeper” (måsapytta, måsatippa f)
seagull – fiskmåse (måk f)
nightjar – nattplacka “night-picker?” (nattbatta, nattblacka “night-black”, nattsjoa “night-drudge”, spånakäring “chip-female?” f)
raptor (bird) – qvidfogel (obsolete – “whine-bird”)/rovfågel “prey-bird” (våtakaja “wet jackdaw” f)
black adder – svart huggorm (bose “bandit?” f)
grass snake – snok (ringhals “ring-neck” f)
lizard – ödla (fyrlefot, fyrfota “four-foot” f)
frog – groda (fröa f)
butterfly – fjäril (ferla f)
spider – spindel (locke f)
a type of worm/snake with poisonous bite – en art mask, onde bettet (grimsbett “grim-bite” f)
a large, dark-red, grove caterpillar with flecks that look like eyes and is very dreaded – en stor mörkröd, lunden larf med ögonformiga fläckar – mycket fruktad (amma “grandma/wet-nurse” f)
glow worm – lysmask “light-worm” (glismark “glisten-worm” f)
a type of black beetle, believed to live in newspaper? – (tidandeskrubba “periodical/newspaper scrubber” f)